Un, B. (2011) Impact of Cambodian Decentralization Policy in Fishery Management on Human Security of Fishers Around the Tonle Sap Lake

Title: Impact of Cambodian Decentralization Policy in Fishery Management on Human Security of Fishers Around the Tonle Sap Lake

Author: Borin Un

Year: 2011

Keywords: CAMBODIA/ TONLE SAP LAK/DECENTRALIZATION/ HUMAN SECURITY/ COMMUNITY FISHERIES

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Abstract:

 

Tonle Sap Lake (TSL) is the largest permanent freshwater body in Southeast Asia and among the most productive freshwater ecosystems in the world. Fisheries from TSL directly support more than one million people around the lake and provide the single largest source of protein for Cambodia's population.

The study investigates whether decentralization in fishery management in Cambodia around the TSL and the establishment of community fisheries (CFs) has strengthened local communities' economic and food security. Three communities in Battambang Province with differing degrees of success in establishing a CF were examined to conduct a comparative analysis, namely: Prek Trob, where a successful CF has been established; Doun Try where an unsuccessful CF has been established; and Kbal Taol where the community has yet to create a CF. The study's conceptual framework differentiates decentralization into: deconcentration, whereby central government delegates power and responsibility to lower government institutions; and democratic decentralization whereby power and responsibility are transferred to local communities.

The study finds that democratic decentralization has not yet fully granted the communities with the necessary powers, resource use rights and autonomy in decision-making to develop and manage the fishery resources in their community. At the same time, deconcentration has not totally created responsive and accountable authorities. As a result, Cambodia's decentralization policy in fishery management has not yet proved to strengthen the economic and food security of local fishers around TSL.

To remedy the gaps of Cambodia's decentralization policy in fishery management, further deconcentration and democratic decentralization in fisheries management must be in place. There must also be more effective enforcement of existing fishery laws through both education and policing, including: addressing corruption in the fisheries sector; taking action against illegal fishers; and halting destruction of fish habitats. Meanwhile, a greater role and incentives should also be given to Commune Councils to engage and partner with local communities in the management and conservation of fisheries resources.

Contact MAIDS-Chula for more information and full thesis at maidschula@gmail.com

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BIOPOWER CASE STUDY CHIN CIVIL SOCIETY COASTAL GOVERNANCE COMMUNITY CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY DEMOCRATIZATION DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION EUROPEAN UNION EX-KMT REFUGEES FRONTIER GOOD GOVERNANCE GOVERNANCE FACTORS HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE HUMAN SECURITY HUMAN TRAFFICKING ICM IMPLEMENTATION INDONESIA INSTITUTIONS INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL-TRANSFORMATION LIVELIHOOD MIGRATION MYANMAR NETWORK THEORY NGO NORTHERN THAILAND POST COLD WAR ASIA REINTEGRATION RESISTANCE RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH SEASONAL LABOUR MIGRATION SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL MOVEMENT SUSTAINABLE COASTAL DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TAK PROVINCE THAI-KAREN PEOPLE THAI BERRY PICKERS THAILAND WORK OPPORTUNITIES WORLD SOCIAL FORUM

Finnegan, J. (2011) The Lives, Working Conditions and Insecurities of Frontier Workers Between Cambodia and Thailand at the Poipet-Aranyaprathet Border Crossing

Title: The Lives, Working Conditions and Insecurities of Frontier Workers Between Cambodia and Thailand at the Poipet-Aranyaprathet Border Crossing

Author: Jennifer Maureen Finnegan

Year: 2011

Keywords: HUMAN SECURITY/MIGRATION/NETWORK THEORY/FRONTIER/CASE STUDY

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Abstract:

 

There are hundreds of men, women and children employed to transport commercial goods between Thailand and Cambodia. Through qualitative research, social mapping, and network theory we try to develop a better understanding of this complex livelihood. This case study paints a picture of Poipet's cart pullers and porters and the labour practices and the short-term cross-border migration situation of frontier workers. The research examines their reality and frames their situation in terms of personal and economic security, migration and labour protection mechanisms for cart pullers and porters. This research couples an overview of a complex socio-economic picture with the first-hand experiences and daily challenges that cart pullers and porters face at this bustling economic corridor.

Key findings from this study indicate that cart pullers and porters of all ages, including children, youth and adults represent a migrant community living in Poipet that experience vulnerabilities related to personal and economic security. Research conclusions illustrate the personal and economic insecurity issues are due to a complex situation linked to belonging to a high migrant population with limited social networks and support, and working within the Special Economic Zone (SEZ) between Thailand and Cambodia. Current bilateral and regional agreements promote manual cross-border labour, but this informal labour lacks regulation and labour protection mechanisms. Practical solutions are needed to address personal and economic insecurities and improve the lives of child, youth and adult cart pullers and porters working at the frontier.

Contact MAIDS-Chula for more information and full thesis at maidschula@gmail.com

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BIOPOWER CHIN CIVIL SOCIETY COASTAL GOVERNANCE COMMUNITY CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY DEMOCRATIZATION DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION EUROPEAN UNION EX-KMT REFUGEES GOOD GOVERNANCE GOVERNANCE FACTORS HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE HUMAN SECURITY HUMAN TRAFFICKING ICM IMPLEMENTATION INDONESIA INSTITUTIONS INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL-TRANSFORMATION KHMER ROUGE LIVELIHOOD MIGRATION MYANMAR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT NGO NORTHERN THAILAND PARTICIPATORY MANGROVE FORESTRY POST COLD WAR ASIA REINTEGRATION RESISTANCE RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH SEASONAL LABOUR MIGRATION SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL MOVEMENT SUSTAINABLE COASTAL DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TAK PROVINCE THAI-KAREN PEOPLE THAI BERRY PICKERS THAILAND WORK OPPORTUNITIES WORLD SOCIAL FORUM

Kallstrom, J. (2011) Transnational Seasonal Labour Migration and Development: Lives of Thai Berry Picker Returnees from Sweden

Title: Transnational Seasonal Labour Migration and Development: Lives of Thai Berry Picker Returnees from Sweden

Author: Julia Kamoltip Kallstrom

Year: 2011

Keywords: SEASONAL LABOUR MIGRATION, THAI BERRY PICKERS, DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract:

 

Previous research has acknowledged that labour migration have had huge benefits for both receiving and sending countries of migrant workers. Thai migrants seasonally traveling to Sweden to pick wild berries have been an ongoing trend since the past two decades. Simultaneously there has been a drastic decline of Swedish labour in the wild berry picking industry. Since the year 2000 there has been an increasing number of Thai berry pickers; in particular rural people from the North-east parts of Thailand. It has been recognized that migration and development are interdependent processes which profoundly influences one another, where migration policies nowadays are developed to take on a development approach.

This qualitative research examines the relationship between transnational seasonal labour migration of berry picking in Sweden and the development of the Thai farmer's living standards in terms of social and economic conditions, and employment. This research contribute with knowledge about Thai migrant berry pickers and fill the existing gap of research made on Thai migrant berry pickers in relation to international labour migration and development. The study seeks to make recommendations on how the seasonal migration of berry picking should be managed and facilitated by the Thai and Swedish Authorities to have a positive outcome. This study is focused on Thai migrant berry pickers from the province of Phetchabun in the sub district of Bueng Krachap and is based on migrant berry pickers who have travelled to Sweden annually. The study presents a unique community of Thai migrant berry pickers who have managed to obtain an income to their distinct measured up to almost 12 million baht per berry season. Interviews with five governmental officials and two organizational representatives and focus group interviews with sixteen migrant berry pickers were the primary source of the data collection. The findings from interviews concluded that the seasonal migration of berry picking have contributed with positive to the Thai migrants living standards in terms of becoming a valuable source of employment and income, acting as an economic security in terms of bad harvest and environmental destruction and nurturing social relationships between migrant berry pickers and their family members.

Contact MAIDS-Chula for more information and full thesis at maidschula@gmail.com

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BIOPOWER CHIN CIVIL SOCIETY COASTAL GOVERNANCE COMMUNITY CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY DEMOCRATIZATION DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION EUROPEAN UNION EX-KMT REFUGEES GOOD GOVERNANCE GOVERNANCE FACTORS HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE HUMAN SECURITY HUMAN TRAFFICKING ICM IMPLEMENTATION INDONESIA INSTITUTIONS INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL-TRANSFORMATION KHMER ROUGE LIVELIHOOD MIGRATION MYANMAR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT NGO NORTHERN THAILAND OTOP PARTICIPATORY MANGROVE FORESTRY POST COLD WAR ASIA REINTEGRATION RESISTANCE RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH SHADOW STATE POLITICS SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL MOVEMENT SUSTAINABLE COASTAL DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TAK PROVINCE THAI-KAREN PEOPLE THAILAND WORK OPPORTUNITIES WORLD SOCIAL FORUM

Tong, L. (2011) The Ex-KMT Refugees in Northern Thailand in the Age of International Political Transformation of Post Cold War Asia

Title: The Ex-KMT Refugees in Northern Thailand in the Age of International Political Transformation of Post Cold War Asia

Author: Lei Tong

Year: 2011

Keywords: EX-KMT REFUGEES/ INTERNATIONAL-TRANSFORMATION / POST COLD WAR ASIA / NORTHERN THAILAND/ HUMAN SECURITY

Download PDF of Abstract: English Thai

Abstract:

 

The KMT refugees in northern Thailand derived from the KMT armies' remnants upon retreated from mainland China to Burma in 1949. Labeled as 'civilian refugees' on their arrival in Thailand by the Thai government, they were encouraged to participate in the Thais' own war on communism until the 1980's. In reward for subduing the communist problem, some of them were granted Thai citizenship, while others remained stateless. From the perspective of international politics, the Cold War in Asia ended earlier than its counterpart in Europe due to the strategic rise of the People's Republic of China and the ensuing adjustment of the U.S's political strategies in Asia. A transformation in terms of the international-political system and structure of Asia from the 1970's onwards has shaped the human security fate of the target groups. The ex-KMTs in northern Thailand gradually lost their strategic importance in the 'grand chessboard' of all interested parties. However, the KMT refugees exist as more than mere "victims' of the transformation. They struggle for resettlement in Thailand or return to Taiwan, and also strive to improve their human security status through advocacy initiatives with relevant parties and communal governance. Different coping strategies have led to diverse effects on the human security status of the target groups. The spontaneous and non-structural coping strategies have been greatly insufficient to protect the target groups from diverse but interrelated human security threats. The thesis depends primarily on documentary research. Fieldwork research at two villages, Mae Salong and Santisuk, also contributes to understanding the limitations and contributions of the target groups' coping strategies as well as their human security status in the four major dimensions of community, economic, and education, and nationality security.

Contact MAIDS-Chula for more information and full thesis at maidschula@gmail.com

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BIOPOWER CHIN CIVIL SOCIETY COASTAL GOVERNANCE COMMUNITY CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY CURRENT EDUCATION IN THE CAMP DEMOCRATIZATION DEVELOPMENT DISCOURSE EDUCATION EUROPEAN UNION GOOD GOVERNANCE GOVERNANCE FACTORS HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE HUMAN TRAFFICKING ICM IMPLEMENTATION INDONESIA INSTITUTIONS INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT KAREN REFUGEES KHMER ROUGE LIVELIHOOD MIGRATION MYANMAR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT NGO OTOP PARTICIPATORY MANGROVE FORESTRY REINTEGRATION RESISTANCE RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH SHADOW STATE POLITICS SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL MOVEMENT SUSTAINABLE COASTAL DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TAK PROVINCE THAI-BURMA BORDER THAI-KAREN PEOPLE THAILAND THAKSIN SHINAWATRA WORK OPPORTUNITIES WORLD SOCIAL FORUM