Title: Community Based Natural Resources Management, Gender and Livelihood in Cambodia: A Case Study in Toul Neang Sav Community Protected Area, Kompong Thom Province
Author: Ly Sophorn
Keywords: GENDER, LIVELIHOOD, COMMUNITY BASED NATURAL RESOURCES
Abstract:Community based natural resources management (CBNRM) is regarded as a significant strategy in the conservation of natural resources and sustainability of rural livelihoods in Cambodia, helps to reduce poverty and increase local participation in resources management. This research aims to investigate the implementation of this approach at the local level with the special attention to its outcomes towards the sustainability of women's and men's livelihood and their roles in generating activities. The study uses data from both of primary and secondary sources. The secondary data are relied on books, research documents and reports while the primary data are derived from field research, using the case study method. Data collection techniques include in-depth interview, semi-structure and participant observation. First, thirteen people from the community were selected and categorized upon their jobs. Then, five people were chosen among these interviewees for the household case studies.
The Toul Neang Say Community Protected Area has been classified as a fishing-agriculture dependent village in which fishing remains the main livelihood activity and dominant other occupation. Secondary or supplementary occupations such as fish cage, chicken-pig rearing, crops and lotus cultivation, and small business operation also contribute to household income generation particularly for household daily expenditure. Women's and men's are responsible for different livelihood activities. Men are more concerned with the primary occupation while women are much involve in supplementary jobs.
After establishment of the community, there is the positive impact on the local community livelihoods regarding to rights, freedom and capacity building. The implementation and the management tasks of the community provide opportunities for people to maintain and secure their livelihood with more freedom to access to and own the resources ground. They are more understanding about how to manage, conserve and use resources in a sustainable way. More livelihood options and other saving society program are also provided in order to up-grade the living conditions. The relationship between women and men slightly improve due to the integration of women in income generating activities, ability to use and to access to resources and community management participation. Women gain more opportunities to engage in household economic distribution which lead to increase the ability in managing household tasks and decision making.
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