Swickard, N. (2009) Does it deliver? an analysis of the sustainable development benefits from clean development mechanism (CDM) projects in Thailand

Over the last decade a growing consensus has emerged to address climate change, and international agreements on the regulation of emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses (GHGs), namely the Kyoto Protocol, have come into full effect. Under the Kyoto protocol, developed countries agreed to reduce emissions of GHGs by an average of 5% of 1990 levels by 2012. Three mechanisms were set up, including the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which allows Annex 1 (developed) countries to source a percentage of their emission reductions within developing countries.

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Salmela, S. (2006) Transaction cost reduction for small-scale Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Projects in Thailand

n environmentally friendly, reliable source of energy, and access to it, can be seen as a critical element in supporting sustainable development at the local community level. Additionally, for developing countries in particular, e.g. renewable energy projects have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide finance through the clean development mechanism (CDM). The main objective of this thesis is to explore how the high transaction costs of small-scale CDM projects can be reduced. Bundling several small-scale CDM projects together and developing them as one larger CDM project bundle is one option.

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Lawler, J. (2006) The interaction between the Mekong River Commission and China : an analysis of hydropolitical dynamics on cooperation

River basins create hydrologic interdependencies that force States to negotiate their interests and national security within a regional context. A hydropolitical security complex emerges when States consider shared resources as a major national security issue. Changes within the political economy of the Mekong basin create new security issues as multiple interests complete for the Mekong’s shared resources. In particular, China has begun developing the upper portions of the Mekong River, which could change the quantity and quality of downstream flows and could impede other States’ ability to fulfill their national agendas vis-à-vis the Mekong.

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TASHI, S. (2013) THE ROLE OF WATER GOVERNANCE IN HYDROPOWER IN BHUTAN: A CASE STUDY OF MANGDECHHU HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT

This study investigates hydropower development in Bhutan, and analyses its roles of sustainability through the frame-work of water governance, focusing on the decision making process. The Royal Government of Bhutan's aspiration to achieve "economic self-reliance" by the year 2020 has accelerated the construction of hydropower in various river basins. However, with its limitations on the implication of effective decision-making process and the nation's water governance, impacts and resistance have emerged at the Local level where the hydropower project are developed.

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PENJOR, T. (2012) THE POLICY DEBATE BETWEEN POVERTY REDUCTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN BHUTAN: A CASE' STUDY OF SHINGKIIAR-GORGAN ROAD IN LIIUNTSE DISTRICT

Lhunste is one of the least developed districts in the eastern part of Bhutan with 43% of population below poverty line. The elected government decided to construct the Shingkhar-Gorgan road which passes through Thrumshingla National Park (INP) to reduce poverty. However, the country's existing laws and policies prohibit roads passing through national parks and protected areas. Therefore, NGOs and other concerned stakeholders have raised concerns towards the government's decision. This thesis examines the competing policy priorities between poverty reduction and environmental protection in Bhutan in which the Shingkhar-Gorgan road is being debated and acted upon by various concerned stakeholders. The information used in the study was collected from two main sources: documentary research; and in-depth focus-group and individual interviews with key informants, including two environmental NGOs, two government stakeholders responsible for environmental protection, a Member of Parliament, and informants from Lhuntse District it includes Jarey, Metsho and Menbi Gups (local leaders) and residents in Gorgan.

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JIRAWISAN, P. (2011) THE ROLES OF THE COMMUNITY, PRIVATE SECTOR, AND LOCAL AUTHORITY IN RECYCLING IN BANGKOK'S GATED COMMUNITIES

Recycling, as proposed by the UN to be one of the means to achieve sustainable development, has not been practiced sufficiently at the household level in Bangkok where waste problem is endemic. This research focuses on recycling in Bangkok's gated communities of which their prevalence and consuming-class residents render them an ideal target group for a source separation program. The roles of three major stakeholders were examined -- the gated community itself, the private recycling agent, and the local authority in charge of waste management.

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Vo, X. (2011) STRENGTHENING ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE IN VIETNAM: A CASE STUDY OF COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO POLLUTION OF THE THI VAI RIVER.

Vedan Vietnam, a fully-owned Taiwanese enterprise, had polluted The Thi Vai River in the South of Vietnam from 1994 to 2008 and had caused negative impact to health and livelihoods of thousands local farmers living along its basin in Ba Ria­Vung Tau, Dong Nai provinces and Ho Chi Minh City. In response to the negative impact caused by the river pollution, local communities had reacted to the case from 1994 to 2011 with different strategy and actors to empower themselves to strengthen local environmental governance and to stop the pollution.

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SARI, B. (2010) THE IMPACT OF ORGANIC RICE CONTRACT FARMING ON FARMERS' LIVELIHOOD AND LAND TENURE IN CAMBODIA: A CASE STUDY IN KAMPONG SPEU PROVINCE

This study examines organic rice contract farming in Cambodia and its impact on farmers' livelihood and land tenure. The study's objective is to gain a better insight of the terms and conditions of rice contract farming scheme in Cambodia, and determine under what conditions contract farming could bring improvements to farmers' livelihoods and strengthen land tenure security. This study contributes new research findings on farmers' livelihood and land ownership changes due to organic-rice contract farming with a case study in Kampong Speu province, Cambodia.

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SOPHORN, L. (2008) COMMUNITY BASED NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, GENDER AND LIVELIHOOD IN CAMBODIA: A CASE STUDY IN TOUL NEANG SAV COMMUNITY PROTECTED AREA, KOMPONG THOM PROVINCE

Community based natural resources management (CBNRM) is regarded as a significant strategy in the conservation of natural resources and sustainability of rural livelihoods in Cambodia, helps to reduce poverty and increase local participation in resources management. This research aims to investigate the implementation of this approach at the local level with the special attention to its outcomes towards the sustainability of women's and men's livelihood and their roles in generating activities. The study uses data from both of primary and secondary sources. The secondary data are relied on books, research documents and reports while the primary data are derived from field research, using the case study method.

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TUN, N. (2008) : COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND THE ROLES OF INTERNATIONAL AID AGENCIES: A CASE STUDY OF MAI JA YANG COMMUNITY, KACHIN STATE, MYANMAR

This research investigates the impacts of the community environmental education program implemented by the Pan Kachin Development Society Environmental project in Mai Ja Yang, Kachin State, Myanmar. The study aims to ascertain the role of international aid agencies in this post-political conflict region. A participatory approach was employed in field research, and an outcome-based evaluation comprising the planning-process-product model was applied for measuring the impacts of the program.

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LONE, S. (2008) THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF OPIUM REDUCTION IN BURMA: LOCAL PERSPECTIVES FROM THE WA REGION

Title: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF OPIUM REDUCTION IN BURMA: LOCAL PERSPECTIVES FROM THE WA REGION
Author: SAI LONE
Year: 2008
Keywords: OPIUM REDUCTION/ FOOD SHORTAGE/ LIVELIHOOD/ SOCIOECONOMIC NEEDS/ CROP SUBSTITUTION
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Abstract:

The focus of this study is on the socioeconomic impacts of rural development projects implemented by international development aid agencies on the livelihood of former opium farmers whose major income source, i.e. opium cultivation, has been banned in the Wa region of Shan state, Burma. A mixture of quantitative and qualitative research methodology was applied in this research. Information had been collected by conducting in-depth interview with former opium farmers, senior local authorities, and project staff of international development aid agencies in the Wa region. Literature review was useful for theoretical approach in analyzing data collected from the field study, and it was also utilized to discover the success stories and lessons learnt from Thai experience on opium reduction which clearly showed that humanitarian crisis could be avoided if the ban on opium cultivation was carried out with the maximum participation of all the stakeholders. Comparison of socioeconomic conditions of the case study villages gives a clear picture of the villagers' life qualities before and after the opium ban. Firstly of all, the root-cause of opium cultivation had been explored to identify the extent of socioeconomic reliance of the farmers on opium, and the impact of opium on the local economy. Secondly, this study made an attempt to discover the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of opium ban, which authoritatively enforced by the United Wa State Army (UWSA) without any preparation of alternative livelihood for the opium farmers. It revealed the coping strategies adopted by the local population, which included expansion of food cultivation area, migration as causal labour, exploitation of natural resources, particularly non-timber forest products in unsustainable manner. Forest depletion caused by illegal logging and expansion of rubber plantation which carried out in order to fill the coffer of local authorities was also discovered. Thirdly, development strategies and approaches of the projects which implemented by international development institutions have been assessed to identify their impacts on the livelihood of former opium farmers. With technical know-how, materials and financial inputs, the rice shortage problem has been solved to a certain extent, however the economic need of the former opium farmers are still far behind being met. This study suggests development strategies and approaches by which the socioeconomic needs of former opium farmers can be solved. It also recommends further research on other crop substitution endeavours which will have serious impacts both on environment and livelihood of the former opium farmers.

Contact MAIDS-Chula for more information and full thesis at maidschula@gmail.com

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BIOPOWER CERTIFICATE TRANSLATION TO MARKET ECONOMY COMMUNITY CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY COUNTRY RECONSTRUCTURE CURRENT EDUCATION IN THE CAMP DEMOCRACY IN BURMA DEMOCRATIZATION DISCOURSE EDUCATION EUROPEAN UNION GOOD GOVERNANCE HIGHER EDUCATION HOCHIMINH CITY HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE ISSURANCE OF BUSINESS REGISTRATION KAREN REFUGEES KHMER ROUGE MIGRATION MYANMAR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT NGO OTOP PARTICIPATORY MANGROVE FORESTRY POLICY IMPLEMENTATION POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PAPERS REINTEGRATION RESISTANCE SENSITIVE SERVICES SHADOW STATE POLITICS SMES SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL EVILS SOCIAL MOVEMENT STREET-LEVEL BUREAUCRAT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TAK PROVINCE THAI-BURMA BORDER THAI-KAREN PEOPLE THAI FEMALE THAILAND THAKSIN SHINAWATRA WORK OPPORTUNITIES WORLD BANK REFORMS WORLD SOCIAL FORUM

WANASANPRAIKHIEO, T. (2008) CHANGES AND CHALLENGES OF COMMUNITY FOREST PRACTICES IN FOREST-DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES IN KACHIN STATE

Title: CHANGES AND CHALLENGES OF COMMUNITY FOREST PRACTICES IN FOREST-DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES IN KACHIN STATE
Author: THEERA WANASANPRAIKHIEO
Year: 2008
Keywords: KACHIN/ COMMUNITY FOREST/ COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT/ LOGGING
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Abstract:

This paper examines the changes and challenges faced by traditional community forest management systems under the changing political and socio-economic conditions in the post conflict areas along the Myanmar/China Border administered by the Kachin Independence Organization (KI0). This research investigates the development and current state of the forest management practices of Forest-Dependent Communities in the Sin Lum Mountain range of Bhamo District, Kachin State, Myanmar. The research focuses on the livelihood challenges these communities face in the political and socio-economic environment since the 1994 ceasefire agreement between the Burmese Junta and the Kachin Independence Organization. This paper discusses the different approaches and projects introduced to Forest-Dependent Communities by different stakeholders under the name of development during this period, how these communities have fared under these development schemes, and the role of local Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) in this process. This research uses a Participatory Rural Appraisal methodology to investigate the variety of ways that local people have responded to the changes and challenges which have impacted their livelihood and natural environment. Extensive interviews with key informants and focus group discussions formed the core of this methodology.

The study found that Challenges faced by local communities arising from a) 441 exchanging natural resources for rapid development, b) Cross-border trade under the expansion of market driven economy, c) top-down urbanization plan, d) the change to modern agriculture, e) the influence of private sector, and f) local people's limited access to the forest resources.

Contact MAIDS-Chula for more information and full thesis at maidschula@gmail.com

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BIOPOWER CERTIFICATE TRANSLATION TO MARKET ECONOMY COMMUNITY CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY COUNTRY OWNERSHIP COUNTRY RECONSTRUCTURE CURRENT EDUCATION IN THE CAMP DEMOCRACY IN BURMA DEMOCRATIZATION DISCOURSE EDUCATION EUROPEAN UNION GOOD GOVERNANCE HIGHER EDUCATION HOCHIMINH CITY HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE ISSURANCE OF BUSINESS REGISTRATION KAREN REFUGEES KHMER ROUGE MIGRATION MYANMAR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT NGO OTOP PARTICIPATORY MANGROVE FORESTRY POLICY IMPLEMENTATION POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PAPERS REINTEGRATION RESISTANCE SENSITIVE SERVICES SHADOW STATE POLITICS SMES SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL EVILS STREET-LEVEL BUREAUCRAT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TAK PROVINCE THAI-BURMA BORDER THAI-KAREN PEOPLE THAI FEMALE THAKSIN SHINAWATRA VIETNAM WORK OPPORTUNITIES WORLD BANK REFORMS WORLD SOCIAL FORUM

WANGSAI, C. (2007) THE PRACTICE OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THAILAND

Title: THE PRACTICE OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THAILAND
Author: CHAYANIN WANGSAI
Year: 2007
Keywords: CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY/ ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION/ THAILAND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY/ BUSINESS AND THE ENVIRONMENT/ SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
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Abstract:

This thesis examined the current practice of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) by the Thai business sector regarding environmental protection and sustainable resource management. It particularly looked at the limitations and constraints faced by the private sector, and the role of the state and civil society concerning to adoption of CSR practice in Thailand. The information used in the study was collected through documentary research and interview with key informants: three Thai businesses with an established reputation for CSR practice, an environmental NGO, and a governmental organization responsible for promoting CSR in Thailand.

The findings revealed that there was a mutual and advanced understanding of the concept and practices of CSR among all participants. With regards to interaction between different sectors, the study showed that the respondents viewed that the CSR movement in Thailand corresponds with a trend towards more participatory policy-making and stakeholder involvement in the area of environmental standard. With regards to limitations, the study revealed discrepancies between large and small organizations, as well as variations across sectors. This is due to the lack of rational or cultural institutional environment to support or encourage CSR practice, resulting in disadvantage for small-scale enterprises engaging in beyond-compliance environmental protection. The different capacities between large and small organizations were reflected in their different approaches to CSR practice. While large business organizations adopted a 'reformist' approach, the smaller business took a 'radical' approach to CSR practice. However, the radical approach to CSR, which is based on local resource and capacity, is likely to be the most appropriate method for a developing country such as Thailand.

Finally, this study recommended that the public, private, and civil society sectors should cooperate to establish measures, particularly the necessary regulatory framework and verification mechanisms, in order to support fair and transparent CSR practice in environmental protection and sustainable resource management by all Thai businesses.

Contact MAIDS-Chula for more information and full thesis at maidschula@gmail.com

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BIOPOWER CERTIFICATE TRANSLATION TO MARKET ECONOMY COMMUNITY COUNTRY OWNERSHIP COUNTRY RECONSTRUCTURE CURRENT EDUCATION IN THE CAMP DEMOCRACY IN BURMA DEMOCRATIZATION DISCOURSE EDUCATION EUROPEAN UNION FTA WATCH GOOD GOVERNANCE HIGHER EDUCATION HOCHIMINH CITY HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE ISSURANCE OF BUSINESS REGISTRATION KAREN REFUGEES KHMER ROUGE MIGRATION MYANMAR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT NGO OTOP PARTICIPATORY MANGROVE FORESTRY POLICY IMPLEMENTATION POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PAPERS REINTEGRATION RESISTANCE SENSITIVE SERVICES SHADOW STATE POLITICS SMES SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL EVILS STREET-LEVEL BUREAUCRAT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TAK PROVINCE THAI-BURMA BORDER THAI-KAREN PEOPLE THAI FEMALE THAKSIN SHINAWATRA VIETNAM WORK OPPORTUNITIES WORLD BANK REFORMS WORLD SOCIAL FORUM

ROEHDER, N. (2006) COMMUNITY — NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION INTERACTIONS IN PARTICIPATORY MANGROVE FOREST CONSERVATION IN AYARWADDY DELTA, MYANMAR

Title: COMMUNITY — NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION INTERACTIONS IN PARTICIPATORY MANGROVE FOREST CONSERVATION IN AYARWADDY DELTA, MYANMAR
Author: NWE MAR ROEHDER
Year: 2006
Keywords: COMMUNITY/NGO/PARTICIPATORY MANGROVE FORESTRY/ MYANMAR
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Abstract:

Community participation in forest conservation activities is a key Myanmar government policy for the forestry sector. This study aimed to examine the dynamics of interaction between the non-governmental organization (NGO) and the community in this context.

The hypothesis was that given the economic, social and political circumstances in Ayarwaddy Delta, Myanmar, the level of success in community participatory mangrove forestry depended on community participation and NGO facilitation combined.

Qualitative research methods were used. Some primary and secondary data were collected from documents. However, in the main, primary data was collected in the field through observation, in-depth interviews of NGO staff, focus group discussions and key informant interviews of villagers in three sample villages in Bogalay Pyindaye forest reserve of Ayarwaddy Delta that were operating under a local NGO-facilitated development project.

The study found that the villagers were at barely subsistence level economically and were thus keen to participate in community forestry (CF) so as to gain long-term land tenancy rights as individuals and to increase their income. The CF users have put the forestry technical skills taught by the NGO to use such that short-term benefits have accrued to them. However, the Forest Department (FD) manpower shortage and officiousness meant that the community-FD relations were weak. The NGO was frequently active as intermediaries between the users and FD. Community participation in CF was found to be strong but limited by dependence on the NGO which the users regard as a benevolent patron. Thus, participatory mangrove community forestry has achieved short-term success because of community participation and NGO facilitation combined.

However, participation was found to have been employed only as a means, simply to achieve project goals, rather than as an end, to empower villagers. The study argues that participation as an end is necessary for long-term sustainable forest management. However, the given social, economic and political circumstance makes empowerment an unrealizable goal.

Contact MAIDS-Chula for more information and full thesis at maidschula@gmail.com

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BIOPOWER DEMOCRATIZATION EDUCATION EUROPEAN UNION GOOD GOVERNANCE HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE RESISTANCE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT TAK PROVINCE THAI-KAREN PEOPLE WORK OPPORTUNITIES WORLD SOCIAL FORUM